With the democratization of digital fabrication tools many digital artists have experimented with physical object-making and vice versa. While “virtual sculpture” is not really a genre distinct from 3D animation, there are many CGI artists with a distinctly sculptural sense.
Here are some examples:


Dark Matter by Morehshin Allahyari (2014-2015)
Also check She Who Sees the Unknown and Material Speculations: ISIS

Shiv Integer by Plummer Fernandez (2006)

Liberator variations by Kyle McDonald

Fauna In The Temple by Auriea Harvey  (2021)



Zium Society – various artists

Museum of Other Realities – various artists

How To Everything by Theo Triantafyllidis (2016)

Lattice-Face Parameter Chant by Brenna Murphy
If the website it too challenging do a google image search

Kathryn Blake

Also check the game Holovista

Bread prosthetics by zeitguised 2020 – instagram (includes commercial work)

Dauphin 007 by Jonathan Monaghan (2011)

A museum of dubious splendors by Studio Oleomingus (2018)

Brainstorm I

Assignment: Assignment:  Create a virtual sculpture by using 3D models found online.

On paper.
Make a list of common objects with some kind of baggage, history, or built-in symbolism.

Pass it to the student on your left and ask them to write abstract concepts they associate with such object. Eg: gun -> violence, America, crime, police…

Team up with the student on your right and try to cross your lists to see if interesting resonances, dissonances, hybridizations emerge from the pair.

On your own.
Make a list of materials, it doesn’t have to be accessible accessible to you: water, moon stone, gold, human flesh…

Crosslist the materials and the objects and see if any interesting relation emerge from the pairing.

Brainstorm II


List of 10 objects with interesting silhouettes, iconic value, or built-in associations as discussed last time. Cover at least 5 of these categories:

furniture/industrial design,
buildings/built environment,

Let’s look at some well known sculptures that incorporate found objects (or reproductions of everyday objects) and analyze how they operate formally:

Lobster Telephone by Salvador Dali

Shape analogy, mimicry (as in an object tries to be something else), Sculptural mashup, Natural / artificial contrast.


Bicycle Wheel by Marcel Duchamp.


Subject, Object, Abject by Jaime Pitarch (2006)

Deconstruction, process

Consonance by Grant Aston

Deconstructed / reassembled

Cadeau by Man Ray

Making a functional object unusable

Jana Sterbak, Sisyphus Sport

Making a non functional object “usable”


One and Three Chairs by Joseph Kosuth

Conceptual. What could be a conceptual approach to this assignment?
Check pippin barr’s v r 3 or the stolen art museum or his piece in the Zium museum

Forever Bicycles – Ai WeiWei

Symmetry, accumulation, cloning (orderly)

Doris Salcedo – Untitled

Accumulation (disorderly), monumental


Mike Kelley

Accumulation, by material/type and color

Controller of the Universe by Damián Ortega

Accumulation and composition, by category/quality

Some/One by Do Ho Suh
Based on a coat of traditional Asian armor, this sculpture is composed from thousands of polished military dog tags. As the title indicates, the work juxtaposes the collective-represented by the armored sculpture-and the individual-symbolized by the dog tags, each representing a single soldier.

Accumulation (structured)

“Untitled” (Portrait of Ross in L.A.) by Felix Gonzalez-Torres
González-Torres’ partner Ross Laycock was diagnosed with AIDS, and died of it the same year as “Untitled” (Portrait of Ross in L.A.)’s creation. pile of candies should ideally weigh 175 pounds (79 kg)—Laycock’s body weight when healthy. Viewers are encouraged to take a piece and the artwork’s owner are to decide if it will be replenished.

Accumulation (disorderly), abstract/conceptual (objects as portrait), participatory, unmonumental

Au Naturel by Sarah Lucas

Innuendo, abstraction, “portraiture”.
Can you make a portrait with objects?


Spoonbridge and Cherry by Claes Oldenburg

Scale (Not a found object obv)

Wim Delvoye – Dump Truck

High culture / low culture contrast. Style transfer?


Assemblage, artificial Natural contrast, visual correspondences


L.O.V.E. by Maurizio Cattelan

Reference (to art history classic statue, roman salute), subtraction/sectioning, context (stock exchange, fascist building)

yoyoi kusama’s pumpkins

Material, scale, texture (albedo/diffuse in 3d terms)

Balloon Dog by Jeff Koons

Material change

(Post crit) Release Strategy

A virtual gallery, in first person, web based. What style/plan?